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Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Cambridge

 

The inner density profile of an elliptical galaxy at z=1.15 from gravitational lensing. (arXiv:2109.10929v1 [astro-ph.GA])

Sat, 25/09/2021 - 17:05

The density profiles of lensing galaxies are typically parameterised by singular power-law models with a logarithmic slope close to isothermal ($\zeta=2$). This is sufficient to fit the lensed emission near the Einstein radius but may not be sufficient when extrapolated to smaller or larger radii if the large-scale density profile is more complex. Here, we consider a broken power-law model for the density profile of an elliptical galaxy at $z=1.15$ using observations with the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimetre Array of the strong gravitational lens system SPT0532$-$50. This is the first application of such a model to real data. We find the lensed emission is best fit by a density profile that is sub-isothermal ($\zeta = 1.87^{+0.02}_{-0.03}$) near the Einstein radius and steepens to super-isothermal ($\zeta = 2.14^{+0.03}_{-0.02}$) at around half the Einstein radius, demonstrating that the lensing data probes the mass distribution inside the region probed by the lensed images. Assuming that a broken power-law is the underlying truth, we find that a single power-law would result in a $10\pm1$ percent underestimate of the Hubble constant from time-delay cosmography. Our results suggest that a broken power-law could be useful for precision lens modelling and probing the structural evolution of elliptical galaxies.

Dark Energy Survey Year 3 results: Marginalisation over redshift distribution uncertainties using ranking of discrete realisations. (arXiv:2109.09636v1 [astro-ph.CO])

Wed, 22/09/2021 - 13:00

Cosmological information from weak lensing surveys is maximised by dividing source galaxies into tomographic sub-samples for which the redshift distributions are estimated. Uncertainties on these redshift distributions must be correctly propagated into the cosmological results. We present hyperrank, a new method for marginalising over redshift distribution uncertainties in cosmological analyses, using discrete samples from the space of all possible redshift distributions. This is demonstrated in contrast to previous highly simplified parametric models of the redshift distribution uncertainty. In hyperrank the set of proposed redshift distributions is ranked according to a small (in this work between one and four) number of summary values, which are then sampled along with other nuisance parameters and cosmological parameters in the Monte Carlo chain used for inference. This can be regarded as a general method for marginalising over discrete realisations of data vector variation with nuisance parameters, which can consequently be sampled separately to the main parameters of interest, allowing for increased computational efficiency. We focus on the case of weak lensing cosmic shear analyses and demonstrate our method using simulations made for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We show the method can correctly and efficiently marginalise over a range of models for the redshift distribution uncertainty. Finally, we compare hyperrank to the common mean-shifting method of marginalising over redshift uncertainty, validating that this simpler model is sufficient for use in the DES Year 3 cosmology results presented in companion papers.

Radio antenna design for sky-averaged 21 cm cosmology experiments: the REACH case. (arXiv:2109.10098v1 [astro-ph.IM])

Wed, 22/09/2021 - 10:11

Following the reported detection of an absorption profile associated with the 21~cm sky-averaged signal from the Cosmic Dawn by the EDGES experiment in 2018, a number of experiments have been set up to verify this result. This paper discusses the design process used for global 21~cm experiments, focusing specifically on the Radio Experiment for the Analysis of Cosmic Hydrogen (REACH). This experiment will seek to understand and compensate for systematic errors present using detailed modelling and characterization of the instrumentation. There is detailed the quantitative figures of merit and numerical modelling used to assist the design process of the REACH dipole antenna (one of the 2 antenna designs for REACH Phase I). This design process produced a 2.5:1 frequency bandwidth dipole. The aim of this design was to balance spectral smoothness and low impedance reflections with the ability to describe and understand the antenna response to the sky signal to inform the critically important calibration during observation and data analysis.

The effect of inhomogeneous reionisation on the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest power spectrum at redshift $z>4$: implications for thermal parameter recovery. (arXiv:2109.06897v1 [astro-ph.CO])

Thu, 16/09/2021 - 12:15

We use the Sherwood-Relics suite of hybrid hydrodynamical and radiative transfer simulations to model the effect of inhomogeneous reionisation on the 1D power spectrum of the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest transmitted flux at redshifts $4.2\leq z \leq 5$. Relative to models that assume a homogeneous UV background, reionisation suppresses the power spectrum at small scales, $k \sim 0.1\rm\,km^{-1}\,s$, by $\sim 10$ per cent because of spatial variations in the thermal broadening kernel and the divergent peculiar velocity field associated with over-pressurised intergalactic gas. On larger scales, $k<0.03\rm\,km^{-1}\,s$, the power spectrum is instead enhanced by $10$-$50$ per cent by large scale spatial variations in the neutral hydrogen fraction. The effect of inhomogeneous reionisation must therefore be accounted for in analyses of forthcoming high precision measurements. We provide a correction for the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest power spectrum at $4.1\leq z \leq 5.4$ in a form that can be easily applied within other parameter inference frameworks. We perform a Bayesian analysis of mock data to assess the extent of systematic biases that may arise in measurements of the intergalactic medium if ignoring this correction. At the scales probed by current high resolution Lyman-$\alpha$ forest data at $z>4$, $0.006 \rm \,km^{-1}\,s\leq k \leq 0.2 \rm\, km^{-1}\,s$, we find inhomogeneous reionisation does not introduce any significant bias in thermal parameter recovery for the current measurement uncertainties of $\sim 10$ per cent. However, for $5$ per cent uncertainties, $\sim 1\sigma$ shifts between the estimated and true parameters occur.

Chasing the Tail of Cosmic Reionization with Dark Gap Statistics in the Ly$\alpha$ Forest over $5 < z < 6$. (arXiv:2109.06295v1 [astro-ph.CO])

Wed, 15/09/2021 - 18:01

We present a new investigation of the intergalactic medium (IGM) near the end of reionization using "dark gaps" in the Lyman-alpha (Ly$\alpha$) forest. Using spectra of 55 QSOs at $z_{\rm em}>5.5$, including new data from the XQR-30 VLT Large Programme, we identify gaps in the Ly$\alpha$ forest where the transmission averaged over 1 comoving $h^{-1}\,{\rm Mpc}$ bins falls below 5%. Nine ultra-long ($L > 80~h^{-1}\,{\rm Mpc}$) dark gaps are identified at $z<6$. In addition, we quantify the fraction of QSO spectra exhibiting gaps longer than $30~h^{-1}\,{\rm Mpc}$, $F_{30}$, as a function of redshift. We measure $F_{30} \simeq 0.9$, 0.6, and 0.15 at $z = 6.0$, 5.8, and 5.6, respectively, with the last of these long dark gaps persisting down to $z \simeq 5.3$. Comparing our results with predictions from hydrodynamical simulations, we find that the data are consistent with models wherein reionization extends significantly below redshift six. Models wherein the IGM is essentially fully reionized that retain large-scale fluctuations in the ionizing UV background at $z \lesssim 6$ are also potentially consistent with the data. Overall, our results suggest that signature of reionization in the form of islands of neutral hydrogen and/or large-scale fluctuations in the ionizing background remain present in the IGM until at least $z \simeq 5.3$.

SWEET-Cat 2.0: The Cat just got SWEETer; Higher quality spectra and precise parallaxes from GAIA eDR3. (arXiv:2109.04781v1 [astro-ph.EP])

Mon, 13/09/2021 - 08:27

Aims. The catalog of Stars With ExoplanETs (SWEET-Cat) was originally introduced in 2013. Since then many more exoplanets have been confirmed, increasing significantly the number of host stars listed there. A crucial step toward a comprehensive understanding of these new worlds is the precise and homogeneous characterization of their host stars. Better spectroscopic stellar parameters along with new results from Gaia eDR3 provide updated and precise parameters for the discovered planets. A new version of the catalog, whose homogeneity in the derivation of the parameters is key to unraveling star-planet connections, is available to the community. Methods. We made use of high-resolution spectra for planet-host stars, either observed by our team or collected through public archives. The spectroscopic stellar parameters were derived for the spectra following the same homogeneous process using ARES and MOOG (ARES+MOOG) as for the previous SWEET-Cat releases. We re-derived parameters for the stars in the catalog using better quality spectra and/or using the most recent versions of the codes. Moreover, the new SWEET-Cat table can now be more easily combined with the planet properties listed both at the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia and at the NASA exoplanet archive to perform statistical analyses of exoplanets. We also made use of the recent GAIA eDR3 parallaxes and respective photometry to derive consistent and accurate surface gravity values for the host stars. Results. We increased the number of stars with homogeneous parameters by more than 40\% (from 645 to 928). We reviewed and updated the metallicity distributions of stars hosting planets with different mass regimes comparing the low-mass planets (< 30M$_{\oplus}$) with the high-mass planets. The new data strengthen previous results showing the possible trend in the metallicity-period-mass diagram for low-mass planets.

Modelling type 1 quasar colours in the era of Rubin and Euclid. (arXiv:2109.04472v1 [astro-ph.GA])

Mon, 13/09/2021 - 08:21

We construct a parametric SED model which is able to reproduce the average observed SDSS-UKIDSS-WISE quasar colours to within one tenth of a magnitude across a wide range of redshift $(0<z<5)$ and luminosity $(-22>M_i>-29)$. This model is shown to provide accurate predictions for the colours of known quasars which are less luminous than those used to calibrate the model parameters, and also those at higher redshifts $z>5$. Using a single parameter, the model encapsulates an up-to-date understanding of the intra-population variance in the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical emission lines of luminous quasars. At fixed redshift, there are systematic changes in the average quasar colours with apparent i-band magnitude, which we find to be well explained by the contribution from the host galaxy and our parametrization of the emission-line properties. By including redshift as an additional free parameter, the model could be used to provide photometric redshifts for individual objects. For the population as a whole we find that the average emission line and host galaxy contributions can be well described by simple functions of luminosity which account for the observed changes in the average quasar colours across $18.1<i_\textrm{AB}<21.5$. We use these trends to provide predictions for quasar colours at the luminosities and redshifts which will be probed by the Rubin Observatory LSST and ESA-Euclid wide survey. The model code is applicable to a wide range of upcoming photometric and spectroscopic surveys, and is made publicly available.

Assessing the sources of reionisation: a spectroscopic case study of a 30$\times$ lensed galaxy at $z \sim 5$ with Ly{\alpha}, CIV, MgII, and [NeIII]. (arXiv:2109.03829v1 [astro-ph.GA])

Fri, 10/09/2021 - 09:55

We present a detailed spectroscopic analysis of a galaxy at $z \simeq 4.88$ that is, by chance, magnified $\sim 30 \times$ by gravitational lensing. Only three sources at $z \gtrsim 5$ are known with such high magnification. This particular source has been shown to exhibit widespread, high equivalent width CIV $\lambda$ 1549 {\AA} emission, implying it is a unique example of a metal-poor galaxy with a hard radiation field, likely representing the galaxy population responsible for cosmic reionisation. Using UV nebular line ratio diagnostics, VLT/X-shooter observations rule out strong AGN activity, indicating a stellar origin of the hard radiation field instead. We present a new detection of [NeIII] $\lambda$ 3870 {\AA} and use the [NeIII]/[OII] line ratio to constrain the ionisation parameter and gas-phase metallicity. Closely related to the commonly used [OIII]/[OII] ratio, our [NeIII]/[OII] measurement shows this source is similar to local "Green Pea" galaxies and Lyman-continuum leakers. It furthermore suggests this galaxy is more metal poor than expected from the Fundamental Metallicity Relation, possibly as a consequence of excess gas accretion diluting the metallicity. Finally, we present the highest redshift detection of MgII $\lambda$ 2796 {\AA}, observed at high equivalent width in emission, in contrast to more evolved systems predominantly exhibiting MgII absorption. Strong MgII emission has been observed in most $z \sim 0$ Lyman-continuum leakers known and has recently been proposed as an indirect tracer of escaping ionising radiation. In conclusion, this strongly lensed galaxy, observed just 300 Myr after reionisation ends, enables testing of observational diagnostics proposed to constrain the physical properties of distant galaxies in the $\mathit{JWST}$/ELT era.

The diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in star-forming galaxies: the influence of aperture effects on local HII regions. (arXiv:2109.02684v1 [astro-ph.GA])

Wed, 08/09/2021 - 09:18

The Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) contributes to the nebular emission of galaxies, resulting in emission line flux ratios that can be significantly different from those produced by HII regions. Comparing the emission of [SII]6717,31 between pointed observations of HII regions in nearby galaxies and integrated spectra of more distant galaxies, it has been recently claimed that the DIG can also deeply affect the emission of bright, star-forming galaxies, and that a large correction must be applied to observed line ratios to recover the genuine contribution from HII regions. Here we show instead that the effect of DIG on the integrated spectra of star-forming galaxies is lower than assumed in previous work. Indeed, aperture effects on the spectroscopy of nearby HII regions are largely responsible for the observed difference: when spectra of local HII regions are extracted using large enough apertures while still avoiding the DIG, the observed line ratios are the same as in more distant galaxies. This result is highly relevant for the use of strong-line methods to measure metallicity.

J1721$+$8842: a gravitationally lensed binary quasar with a proximate damped Lyman-$\alpha$ absorber. (arXiv:2109.01144v1 [astro-ph.GA])

Tue, 07/09/2021 - 14:29

High-redshift binary quasars provide key insights into mergers and quasar activity, and are useful tools for probing the spatial kinematics and chemistry of galaxies along the line-of-sight. However, only three sub-10-kpc binaries have been confirmed above $z=1$. Gravitational lensing would provide a way to easily resolve such binaries, study them in higher resolution, and provide more sightlines, though the required alignment with a massive foreground galaxy is rare. Through image deconvolution of StanCam Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) monitoring data, we reveal two further point sources in the known, $z \approx 2.38$, quadruply lensed quasar (quad), J1721+8842. An ALFOSC/NOT long-slit spectrum shows that the brighter of these two sources is a quasar with $z = 2.369 \pm 0.007$ based on the C III] line, while the C III] redshift of the quad is $z = 2.364 \pm 0.003$. Lens modelling using point source positions rules out a single source model, favouring an isothermal lens mass profile with two quasar sources separated by $\sim6.0$ kpc (0.73$^{\prime \prime}$) in projection. Given the resolving ability from lensing and current lensed quasar statistics, this discovery suggests a large population of undiscovered, unlensed sub-10-kpc binaries. We also analyse spectra of two images of the quad, showing narrow Ly$\alpha$ emission within the trough of a proximate damped Ly$\alpha$ absorber (PDLA). An apparent mismatch between the continuum and narrow line flux ratios provides a new potential tool for simultaneously studying microlensing and the quasar host galaxy. Signs of the PDLA are also seen in the second source, however a deeper spectrum is still required to confirm this. Thanks to the multiple lines-of-sight from lensing and two quasar sources, this system offers simultaneous sub-parsec and kpc-scale probes of a PDLA.

Multi-wavelength Optical and NIR Variability Analysis of the Blazar PKS 0027-426. (arXiv:2108.13386v1 [astro-ph.GA])

Wed, 01/09/2021 - 10:00

We present multi-wavelength spectral and temporal variability analysis of PKS 0027-426 using optical griz observations from DES (Dark Energy Survey) between 2013-2018 and VOILETTE (VEILS Optical Light curves of Extragalactic TransienT Events) between 2018-2019 and near infrared (NIR) JKs observations from VEILS (VISTAExtragalactic Infrared Legacy Survey) between 2017-2019. Multiple methods of cross-correlation of each combination of light curve provides measurements of possible lags between optical-optical, optical-NIR, and NIR-NIR emission, for each observation season and for the entire observational period. Inter-band time lag measurements consistently suggest either simultaneous emission or delays between emission regions on timescales smaller than the cadences of observations. The colour-magnitude relation between each combination of filters was also studied to determine the spectral behaviour of PKS 0027-426. Our results demonstrate complex colour behaviour that changes between bluer when brighter (BWB), stable when brighter (SWB) and redder when brighter (RWB) trends over different timescales and using different combinations of optical filters. Additional analysis of the optical spectra is performed to provide further understanding of this complex spectral behaviour.

Merger Histories and Environments of Dwarf AGN in IllustrisTNG. (arXiv:2108.13100v1 [astro-ph.GA])

Wed, 01/09/2021 - 09:53

The relationship between active galactic nuclei activity and environment has been long discussed, but it is unclear if these relations extend into the dwarf galaxy mass regime -- in part due to the limits in both observations and simulations.

We aim to investigate if the merger histories and environments are significantly different between AGN and non-AGN dwarf galaxies in cosmological simulations, which may be indicative of the importance of these for AGN activity in dwarf galaxies, and whether these results are in line with observations.

Using the IllustrisTNG flagship TNG100-1 run, 6\,771 dwarf galaxies are found with 3\,863 ($\sim$57 per cent) having some level of AGN activity. In order to quantify `environment', two measures are used: 1) the distance to a galaxy's 10th nearest neighbour at 6 redshifts and 2) the time since last merger for three different minimum merger mass ratios. A similar analysis is run on TNG50-1 and Illustris-1 to test for the robustness of the findings.

Both measures yield significantly different distributions between AGN and non-AGN galaxies; more non-AGN than AGN galaxies have long term residence in dense environments while recent ($\leq 4 \text{ Gyr}$) minor mergers are more common for intermediate AGN activity. While no statements are made about the micro- or macrophysics from these results, it is nevertheless indicative of a non-neglible role of mergers and environments.

The extension of the Fundamental Metallicity Relation beyond the BPT star-forming sequence: evidence for both gas accretion and starvation. (arXiv:2108.12437v1 [astro-ph.GA])

Wed, 01/09/2021 - 09:34

The fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) of galaxies is a 3D relation between the gas-phase metallicity, stellar mass and star-formation rate (SFR). It has been studied so far only for galaxies identified as star-forming (SF) on the BPT diagrams (BPT-SF), but not for galaxies with LI(N)ER/AGN classification (BPT-non-SF), mainly due to the lack of diagnostics for estimating their gas-phase metallicities in the latter cases. We extend the FMR to BPT-non-SF galaxies. To this end, we exploit the recent nebular line empirical calibrations derived specifically for galaxies classified as non-SF in the BPT diagrams. Moreover, we study an alternative representation of the FMR where we consider the offsets in metallicity and SFR with respect to Main Sequence (MS) galaxies. We find that galaxies with SFR higher than the MS are more metal-poor than their counterparts on the MS, which is interpreted in terms of gas accretion, boosting star formation and diluting the metallicity. Low-mass galaxies below the MS (i.e. towards quiescence) have metallicities higher than their MS counterparts, which is interpreted in terms of starvation, (i.e. suppression of fresh gas supply) hampering star formation and reducing the dilution effect, hence resulting in a higher level of internal chemical enrichment. Massive galaxies below the MS have gas metallicity much closer to their MS counterparts and much lower than expected from their stellar metallicities; this result suggests a scenario where massive nearly-quiescent galaxies with LI(N)ER-like nebular emission have recently accreted gas from the circum/intergalactic medium.

Hardness of ionizing radiation fields in MaNGA star-forming galaxies. (arXiv:2108.10890v1 [astro-ph.GA])

Mon, 30/08/2021 - 17:22

We investigate radiation hardness within a representative sample of 67 nearby (0.02 $\lesssim $z$ \lesssim$0.06) star-forming (SF) galaxies using the integral field spectroscopic data from the MaNGA survey. The softness parameter $\eta$ = $\frac{O^{+}/O^{2+}}{S^{+}/S^{2+}}$ is sensitive to the spectral energy distribution of the ionizing radiation. We study $\eta$ via the observable quantity $\eta\prime$ (=$\frac{[OII]/[OIII]}{[SII][SIII]}$) We analyse the relation between radiation hardness (traced by $\eta$ and $\eta\prime$) and diagnostics sensitive to gas-phase metallicity, electron temperature, density, ionization parameter, effective temperature and age of ionizing populations. It is evident that low metallicity is accompanied by low log $\eta\prime$, i.e. hard radiation field. No direct relation is found between radiation hardness and other nebular parameters though such relations can not be ruled out. We provide empirical relations between log $\rm\eta$ and strong emission line ratios N$_2$, O$_3$N$_2$ and Ar$_3$O$_3$ which will allow future studies of radiation hardness in SF galaxies where weak auroral lines are undetected. We compare the variation of [O III]/[O II] and [S III]/[S II] for MaNGA data with SF galaxies and H II regions within spiral galaxies from literature, and find that the similarity and differences between different data set is mainly due to the metallicity. We find that predictions from photoionizaion models considering young and evolved stellar populations as ionizing sources in good agreement with the MaNGA data. This comparison also suggests that hard radiation fields from hot and old low-mass stars within or around SF regions might significantly contribute to the observed $\eta$ values.

HERA Phase I Limits on the Cosmic 21-cm Signal: Constraints on Astrophysics and Cosmology During the Epoch of Reionization. (arXiv:2108.07282v1 [astro-ph.CO])

Wed, 18/08/2021 - 09:23

Recently, the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) collaboration has produced the experiment's first upper limits on the power spectrum of 21-cm fluctuations at z~8 and 10. Here, we use several independent theoretical models to infer constraints on the intergalactic medium (IGM) and galaxies during the epoch of reionization (EoR) from these limits. We find that the IGM must have been heated above the adiabatic cooling threshold by z~8, independent of uncertainties about the IGM ionization state and the nature of the radio background. Combining HERA limits with galaxy and EoR observations constrains the spin temperature of the z~8 neutral IGM to 27 K < T_S < 630 K (2.3 K < T_S < 640 K) at 68% (95%) confidence. They therefore also place a lower bound on X-ray heating, a previously unconstrained aspects of early galaxies. For example, if the CMB dominates the z~8 radio background, the new HERA limits imply that the first galaxies produced X-rays more efficiently than local ones (with soft band X-ray luminosities per star formation rate constrained to L_X/SFR = { 10^40.2, 10^41.9 } erg/s/(M_sun/yr) at 68% confidence), consistent with expectations of X-ray binaries in low-metallicity environments. The z~10 limits require even earlier heating if dark-matter interactions (e.g., through millicharges) cool down the hydrogen gas. Using a model in which an extra radio background is produced by galaxies, we rule out (at 95% confidence) the combination of high radio and low X-ray luminosities of L_{r,\nu}/SFR > 3.9 x 10^24 W/Hz/(M_sun/yr) and L_X/SFR<10^40 erg/s/(M_sun/yr). The new HERA upper limits neither support nor disfavor a cosmological interpretation of the recent EDGES detection. The analysis framework described here provides a foundation for the interpretation of future HERA results.

Hydrogen reionisation ends by $z=5.3$: Lyman-$\alpha$ optical depth measured by the XQR-30 sample. (arXiv:2108.03699v1 [astro-ph.CO])

Wed, 11/08/2021 - 09:32

The presence of excess scatter in the Ly-$\alpha$ forest at $z\sim 5.5$, together with the existence of sporadic extended opaque Gunn-Peterson troughs, has started to provide robust evidence for a late end of hydrogen reionisation. However, low data quality and systematic uncertainties complicate the use of Ly-$\alpha$ transmission as a precision probe of reionisation's end stages. In this paper, we assemble a sample of 67 quasar sightlines at $z>5.5$ with high signal-to-noise ratios of $>10$ per $\leq 15$ km s$^{-1}$ spectral pixel, relying largely on the new XQR-30 quasar sample. XQR-30 is a large program on VLT/X-Shooter which obtained deep (SNR $>20$ per pixel) spectra of 30 quasars at $z>5.7$. We carefully account for systematics in continuum reconstruction, instrumentation, and contamination by damped Ly-$\alpha$ systems. We present improved measurements of the mean Ly-$\alpha$ transmission over $4.9<z<6.1$. Using all known systematics in a forward modelling analysis, we find excellent agreement between the observed Ly-$\alpha$ transmission distributions and the homogeneous-UVB simulations Sherwood and Nyx up to $z\leq5.2$ ($<1 \sigma$), and mild tension ($\sim 2.5 \sigma$) at $z=5.3$. Homogeneous UVB models are ruled out by excess Ly-$\alpha$ transmission scatter at $z\geq5.4$ with high confidence ($>3.5 \sigma$). Our results indicate that reionisation-related fluctuations, whether in the UVB, residual neutral hydrogen fraction, and/or IGM temperature, persist in the intergalactic medium until $z=5.3$ ($t=1.1$ Gyr after the Big Bang). This is further evidence for a late end to reionisation.

The Nature of High ${\rm [OIII]}_{\rm 88\mu m}$/${\rm [CII]}_{\rm 158\mu m}$ Galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization: Low Carbon Abundance and a Top-Heavy IMF?. (arXiv:2108.01074v1 [astro-ph.GA])

Thu, 05/08/2021 - 12:34

ALMA observations of $z>6$ galaxies have revealed abnormally high [OIII]$_{\rm 88\mu m}$/[CII]$_{\rm 158\mu m}$ ratios and [CII] deficits compared to local galaxies. The origin of this behaviour is unknown. Numerous solutions have been proposed including differences in C and O abundance ratios, observational bias, and differences in ISM properties, including ionisation parameter, gas density, or PDR covering fraction. In order to elucidate the underlying physics that drives this high-redshift phenomenon, we employ SPHINX$^{20}$, a state-of-the-art, cosmological radiation-hydrodynamics simulation, that resolves detailed ISM properties of thousands of galaxies in the epoch of reionization. We find that the observed $z>6$ [OIII]-SFR and [CII]-SFR relations can only be reproduced when the C/O abundance ratio is $\sim8\times$ lower than Solar and the total metal production is $\sim5.7\times$ higher than that of a Kroupa IMF. This implies that high-redshift galaxies are potentially primarily enriched by low-metallicity core-collapse supernovae with a more top-heavy IMF. As AGB stars and type-Ia supernova begin to contribute to the galaxy metallicity, both the [CII]-SFR and [CII] luminosity functions are predicted to converge to observed values at $z\sim4.5$. While we demonstrate that ionisation parameter, LyC escape fraction, and CMB attenuation all drive galaxies towards higher [OIII]/[CII], observed values at $z>6$ can only be reproduced with substantially lower C/O abundances compared to Solar. The combination of [CII] and [OIII] can be used to predict the values of ionisation parameter, ISM gas density, and LyC escape fraction. We provide estimates of these quantities for nine observed $z>6$ galaxies. Finally, we demonstrate that [OI]$_{\rm 63\mu m}$ can be used as a replacement for [CII] when [CII] is unobserved and argue that more observation time should be used to target [OI] at $z>6$.

Cross-correlation of DES Y3 lensing and ACT/${\it Planck}$ thermal Sunyaev Zel'dovich Effect II: Modeling and constraints on halo pressure profiles. (arXiv:2108.01601v1 [astro-ph.CO])

Thu, 05/08/2021 - 09:30

Hot, ionized gas leaves an imprint on the cosmic microwave background via the thermal Sunyaev Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. The cross-correlation of gravitational lensing (which traces the projected mass) with the tSZ effect (which traces the projected gas pressure) is a powerful probe of the thermal state of ionized baryons throughout the Universe, and is sensitive to effects such as baryonic feedback. In a companion paper (Gatti et al. 2021), we present tomographic measurements and validation tests of the cross-correlation between galaxy shear measurements from the first three years of observations of the Dark Energy Survey, and tSZ measurements from a combination of Atacama Cosmology Telescope and ${\it Planck}$ observations. In this work, we use the same measurements to constrain models for the pressure profiles of halos across a wide range of halo mass and redshift. We find evidence for reduced pressure in low mass halos, consistent with predictions for the effects of feedback from active galactic nuclei. We infer the hydrostatic mass bias ($B \equiv M_{500c}/M_{\rm SZ}$) from our measurements, finding $B = 1.8\pm0.1$ when adopting the ${\it Planck}$-preferred cosmological parameters. We additionally find that our measurements are consistent with a non-zero redshift evolution of $B$, with the correct sign and sufficient magnitude to explain the mass bias necessary to reconcile cluster count measurements with the ${\it Planck}$-preferred cosmology. Our analysis introduces a model for the impact of intrinsic alignments (IA) of galaxy shapes on the shear-tSZ correlation. We show that IA can have a significant impact on these correlations at current noise levels.

Cross-correlation of DES Y3 lensing and ACT/${\it Planck}$ thermal Sunyaev Zel'dovich Effect I: Measurements, systematics tests, and feedback model constraints. (arXiv:2108.01600v1 [astro-ph.CO])

Thu, 05/08/2021 - 09:29

We present a tomographic measurement of the cross-correlation between thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) maps from ${\it Planck}$ and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and weak galaxy lensing shears measured during the first three years of observations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES Y3). This correlation is sensitive to the thermal energy in baryons over a wide redshift range, and is therefore a powerful probe of astrophysical feedback. We detect the correlation at a statistical significance of $21\sigma$, the highest significance to date. We examine the tSZ maps for potential contaminants, including cosmic infrared background (CIB) and radio sources, finding that CIB has a substantial impact on our measurements and must be taken into account in our analysis. We use the cross-correlation measurements to test different feedback models. In particular, we model the tSZ using several different pressure profile models calibrated against hydrodynamical simulations. Our analysis marginalises over redshift uncertainties, shear calibration biases, and intrinsic alignment effects. We also marginalise over $\Omega_{\rm m}$ and $\sigma_8$ using ${\it Planck}$ or DES priors. We find that the data prefers the model with a low amplitude of the pressure profile at small scales, compatible with a scenario with strong AGN feedback and ejection of gas from the inner part of the halos. When using a more flexible model for the shear profile, constraints are weaker, and the data cannot discriminate between different baryonic prescriptions.

Extreme Precision Radial Velocity Working Group Final Report. (arXiv:2107.14291v1 [astro-ph.IM])

Tue, 03/08/2021 - 08:52

Precise mass measurements of exoplanets discovered by the direct imaging or transit technique are required to determine planet bulk properties and potential habitability. Furthermore, it is generally acknowledged that, for the foreseeable future, the Extreme Precision Radial Velocity (EPRV) measurement technique is the only method potentially capable of detecting and measuring the masses and orbits of habitable-zone Earths orbiting nearby F, G, and K spectral-type stars from the ground. In particular, EPRV measurements with a precision of better than approximately 10 cm/s (with a few cm/s stability over many years) are required. Unfortunately, for nearly a decade, PRV instruments and surveys have been unable to routinely reach RV accuracies of less than roughly 1 m/s. Making EPRV science and technology development a critical component of both NASA and NSF program plans is crucial for reaching the goal of detecting potentially habitable Earthlike planets and supporting potential future exoplanet direct imaging missions such as the Habitable Exoplanet Observatory (HabEx) or the Large Ultraviolet Optical Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR). In recognition of these facts, the 2018 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Exoplanet Science Strategy (ESS) report recommended the development of EPRV measurements as a critical step toward the detection and characterization of habitable, Earth-analog planets. In response to the NAS-ESS recommendation, NASA and NSF commissioned the EPRV Working Group to recommend a ground-based program architecture and implementation plan to achieve the goal intended by the NAS. This report documents the activities, findings, and recommendations of the EPRV Working Group.